The accurate identification of fish 'ear-bones', known as otoliths, is essential to determine the fish prey of marine and terrestrial predators. Fish otoliths are species-specific when combining size, shape and surface features, and can remain undigested for long periods. As a result, they can indicate which fish make up the diet of various predators, including cephalopod, seabird, marine mammal and fish species. Such studies are crucial for understanding marine ecosystems, and trophodynamics in particular. Increasingly, these methods are being used to understand the diet of some terrestrial predators, also extending to that of humans in archaelogical studies.
Antidumping and countervailing duty measures can no longer languish on the books eternally. The new 'sunset' provision, agreed to during the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, establishes a five-year time limit (from imposition or last review) on these measures. Maintaining such measures now requires a finding that expiration would likely lead to dumping or subsidization and injury. Many member states, such as the United States, have had to modify their domestic legislation to incorporate the new rules. The commencement of the first round of sunset reviews in the United States is set for July 1998.This timely, practical guide offers all the information on sunset reviews that practitioners in the field need to know. Separate chapters focus on the law and practice on expiration of measures before and after the Uruguay Round for the European Union (EU), Canada, Australia, and the United States--historically the major users of antidumping and countervailing measures.Further chapters include: a concise negotiating history of the provisions for context in understanding future post-Uruguay Round sunset decisions; reviews of applicable legislative provisions and summaries of factors considered in applying provisions in particular cases; procedural background and deadlines for sunset reviews; and a comparison of the procedural requirements and substantive considerations in the sunset review systems.
Australian literature is one of the richest bodies of work in world literature, dealing not only with "local" Australian issues but also with themes and questions at the forefront of global literary discussion. This comprehensive new Companion takes a fresh look at Australian literature since 1900, taking a broad view of what literature is and viewing it with Australian cultural and societal concerns in mind. Especially relevant here is the heightened role accorded to Australia's indigenous people -- both in literature and in public discourse in the wider sense -- following the landmark 1992 Mabo decision on Aboriginal land rights. Thus two full chapters are devoted to indigenous literature and indigenous issues, which also inform many of the other chapters. Attention to other multicultural connections -- in chapters on Asian-Australian and Jewish-Australian literature and Australian-New Zealand literary relations -- reveal dimensions that few have fully examined. At the same time, the competing pull of Australia's continued connection to Great Britain is given its due.There are chapters on internationally prominent authors such as Patrick White, Peter Carey, David Malouf, and Christina Stead, as well as those of growing reputation such as Gerald Murnane and Tim Winton and less-publicized yet crucially important writers such as Xavier Herbert and Dorothy Hewett. There are also chapters on prose fiction, poetry, drama, children's literature, science fiction, and regional literature, as well as on women's writing and gay and lesbian writing. Together, the articles demonstrate that Australian literature is part of world literature, going beyond Eurocentric ideas of national literary history to reveal the full, resplendent variety of Australian writing. Nicholas Birns teaches literature at the New School in New York City and is editor of Antipodes: A North American Journal of Australian Literature and author of Understanding Anthony Powell (2004). Rebecca McNeer is Associate Dean at Ohio Southern University and has published on Shakespeare, Virginia Woolf, and Australian literature
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